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      Tip: Understanding Rank

      PEP-Web Tip of the Day

      When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

      Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

      When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

      To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

      unconscious communications

      Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

      A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

      counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

      There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

      The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

      For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

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      ISTIPIaccarino, BiancaIan, MarciaIankilevich, Eneida
      Iannuzzi, Victor P.Iannuzzi, VictorIaria, AntoninoIbáñez, Carmen
      Ibánez, Félix M.Ibarra, SegundoIbsens, HenrikIddan, Eldad
      Ierodiakonou, Charalambos S.Ierodiakonou-Benou, IoannaIetswaart, Willem L.Ietswaart, Willem
      Iga, MamoruIgert, BéatriceIggedal, RebeckaIgnatowski, Michael
      Igra, LudvigIgram, DouglasIhanus, JuhaniIkenberry, Jean
      Ikiz, Simruyİkiz, Tevfika T.İkiz, TevfikaIkiz, Tevfika
      Ikkos, G.Ikkos, GeorgeIkonen, EevaIkonen, P.
      Ikonen, PenttiIlahi, M. N.Ilahi, NasirIlan, Eliezer
      Ilany, IlanyIleyassoff, RicardoIlias, KourkoutasIllán, Mariela
      Illing, H. A.Illing, Hans A.Illing, Hans. A.Illing, Hans
      IlseIlvonen, CarolImbasciati, AntonioImbasciati, Lucia R.
      Imbeault, JeanImber, Ruth R.Imber, RuthImbesi, Lucia
      Imeri, LucaImhorst, ElisabethImirowicz, RichardImmerman, Jill
      Impastato, DavidImpert, LauraIncerti, LiviaInck, Thomas
      Inderbitzin, Lawrence B.Indovina, SerenaInfante, José A.Infurchia, Claudia
      Ingber, RichardIngham, GrahamIngham, John M.Ingham, John
      Ingham, TobyIngleby, DavidInglese, SalvatoreIngouf, Junior
      Ingram, D. H.Ingram, Douglas H.Ingram, DouglasIngram, Giselle G.
      Ingram, RichardIngrassia, AntoninaInkpen, CarlyInman, W. S.
      Innamorati, MarcoInnes-Smith, JamesInowlocki, LenaInsaf, Shahid
      Inslegers, RuthInspector, YoramInvernizzi, GiordanoIoannou, Anna
      Ioannou, YiannaIofrida, ManlioIon, RuxandraIpp, Hazel R.
      Ipp, HazelIpser, JonathanIreland, Mardy S.Irimia, Corneliu
      Irimia, DanielaIrion, UlrichIronside, LeslieIrvine, Bruce
      Irving, KeithIrwin, Bonnie W.Irwin, Eleanor C.Irwin, John W.
      Irwin, JonesIrwin, Marc H.Isaac, RhodaIsaac-Edersheim, E.
      Isaacs, Kenneth S.Isaacs, M. E.Isaacs, S.Isaacs, Stephen
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      Isaacs-Elmhirst, SueIsaacson, Tyia G.Isakower, O.Isakower, Otto
      Isaksson, Anna L.Isaksson, AnnaLenaIsay, Richard A.Iscan, Cuneyt
      Iscan, SureyyaIseman, DavidIsenberg, ConnieIsenberg, Morris
      Isenman, DavidIsenstadt, LesterIsgrò, SandraIsham, A. C.
      Isham, Mary K.Island, Thor K.Isler, HansruediIsmael, Walderedo
      Ismail, SharifIsono, MasayoIsosävi, SannaIsotoff, Andrei
      Isphording, SybilleIsraël, MoniqueIsrael, MortonIsraël, Paul
      Israel, PaulIsraeli, EtzionaIsraeli, NaftallyIsraelievitch, Gabrielle
      Israëls, HanIsraelstam, KenIsraelstam, KennethIsroff, Judith
      Issacharoff, AmnonIssaharoff, Eduardo B.Issaharoff, EduardoIssak, Jo A.
      Isserow, JonathanIsserow, PhD, JonathanIssroff, JudithIssroff, Rahle
      Italiana, Società P.Ithier, BéatriceIthier, BeatriceItrani, Judith L.
      Itten, TheodorItten, W.Itzhaky, HayaItzkowitz, Norman
      Itzkowitz, SheldonIvan, Anca M.Ivan, AncaIvancich, Pola
      Ivany, Christopher G.Ivey, GavinIvimey, MurielIwata, Makoto
      Iyengar, SunilIzeddin, A.Izenberg, Gerald N.Izenberg, Gerald
      Izinicki, GenevieveIzner, Sanford M.Izod, JohnIzod, Karen
      Izzard, SusannahIzzo, Ezio M.Izzo, Philip
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