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      Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and Loss: Volume III: Loss, Sadness and Depression. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 109:1-462. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      (1980). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 109:1-462. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      Attachment and Loss: Volume III: Loss, Sadness and Depression

      John Bowlby

      Contents

        Acknowledgements xiii
        Preface 1
        Part I: Observations, Concepts and Controversies
      1 The Trauma of Loss 7
        Prelude 7
        Grief in infancy and early childhood 9
        Do young children mourn? a controversy 14
        Detachment 19
      2 The Place of Loss and Mourning in Psychopathology 23
        A clinical tradition 23
        Ideas regarding the nature of mourning processes, healthy and pathological 24
        Ideas to account for individual differences n response to loss 34
      3 Conceptual Framework 38
        Attachment theory: an outline 38
        Stressors and states of stress and distress 41
      4 An Infomation Processing Approach to Defence 44
        A new approach 44
        Exclusion of information from further processing 44
        Subliminal perception and perceptual defence 46
        Stages at which processes of defensive exclusion may operate 52
        Self or selves 59
        Some consequences of defensive exclusion 64
        Conditions that promote defensive exclusion 69
        Defensive exclusion: adaptive or maladaptive 72
      5 Plan of Work 75
        Part II: The Mourning of Adults
      6 Loss of Spouse 81
        Source 81
        Four phases of mourning 85
        Differences between widows and widowers 103
        Note: details of sources 106
      7 Loss of Child 112
        Introduction 112
        Parents of fatally ill children 113
        Parents of infants who are stillborn or die early 122
        Affectional bonds of diffrent types: a note 124
      8 Mourning in Other Cultures 126
        Beliefs and customs common to many cultures 126
        Mourning a grown son in Tikopia 132
        Mourning a husband in Japan 134
      9 Disordered Variants 137
        Two main variants 137
        Chronic mourning 141
        Prolonged absence of conscious grieving 152
        Mislocations fo the lost person's presence 161
        Euphoria 169
      10 Conditions Affecting the Course of Mourning 172
        Five categories of variable 172
        Identity and role of person lost 173
        Age and sex of person bereaved 178
        Causes and circumstances of loss 180
        Social and psychological circumstances affecting the bereaved 187
        Evidence from therapeutic intervention 195
      11 Personalities Prone to Disordered Mourning 202
        Limitations of evidence 202
        Disposition to make anxious and ambivalent relationships 203
        Disposition towards complusive caregiving 206
        Disposition to assert independence of affectional ties 211
        Tentative conclusions 222
      12 Childhood Experience of Persons Prone to Disordered Mourning 214
        Traditional theories 214
        The position adopted 216
        Experiences disposing towards anxious and ambivalent attachment 218
        Experiences disposing towards compulsive caregiving 222
        Experiences disposing towards assertion of independence of affectional ties 224
      13 Cognitive Process Contributing to Variations in Response to Loss 229
        A framework for conceptualizing cognitive processes 229
        Cognitive biases affecting responses to loss 232
        Biases contributing to chronic mourning 234
        Biases contributing to prolonged absence of grieving 239
        Biased perceptions of potential comforters 240
        Biases contributing to a healthy outcome 242
        Interaction of congnitive biases with other conditions affecting responses to loss 243
      14 Sadness, Depression and Depressive Disoder 245
        Sadness and depression 245
        Depressive disorder and childhood experience 246
        Depressive disorders and their relation to loss: George Brown's study 250
        The role of neurophysiological processes 261
        Part III: The Mourning of Children
      15 Death of Parent during Childhood and Adolesence 265
        Sources and plan of work 265
        When and what a child is told 271
        Children's ideas about death 273
      16 Children's Responses when Conditions are Favorable 276
        Mourning in two four-year-olds 276
        Some tentative conclusions 285
        Diffrences between children's mourning and adults 295
        Behaviour of surviving parents to their bereaved children 292
      17 Childhood Bereavement and Psychiatric Disorder 295
        Increased risk of psychiatric disorder 295
        Some disorders to which childhood bereavement contributes 300
      18 conditions Responsible for Difference in Outcome 311
        Source of evidence 311
        Evidence from surveys 312
        Evidence from therapeutic studies 317
      19 Children's Responses when Conditions are Unfavourable 320
        Four children whose mourning failed 320
        Peter, eleven when father died 321
        Henry, eight when mother died 327
        Visha, ten when father died 333
        Geraldine, eight when mother died 338
      20 Deactivation and the cocnept fo Segregated Systems 345
      21 Disordered Variants and Some Conditions Contributing 350
        Persisting anxiety 351
        Hopes of reunion: desire to die 354
        Persisting blame and guilt 358
        Overactivity: aggressive and destructive outbursts 361
        Compulsive caregiving annd self-reliance 365
        Euphoria and depersonalization 370
        Identificatory symptoms: accidents 376
      22 Effects of a Parent's Suicide 381
        Proportion of parents' deaths due to suicide 381
        Findings from surveys 382
        Findings from therapeutic studies 383
      23 Responses to Loss during the Third and Fourth Years 390
        Questions remaining 390
        Responses when coditiosn are favourable 390
        Responses when coditions are unfavourable 397
      24 Responses to Loss during the Second Year 412
        A transitional period 412
        Responses when coditiosn are favourable 412
        Responses when coditions are unfavourable 416
      25 Young Children's Responses in the Light of Early Cognitive Development 425
        Developing the concept of person permanence 425
        The role of person permanence in determining respondses to separation and loss 433
        Epilogue 441
        Bibliography 443

      This Page Left Intentionally Blank

      Acknowledgements

      Once again in preparing this volume I have been helped and encouraged by many friends and colleagues who have given most generously of their time and thought.

      [This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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