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      Tip: Understanding Rank

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      When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

      Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

      When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

      To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

      unconscious communications

      Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

      A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

      counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

      There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

      The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

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      Klein, M. (1975). Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946–1963: Edited By: M. Masud R. Khan. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 104:1-346. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      (1975). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 104:1-346. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946–1963: Edited By: M. Masud R. Khan

      Melanie Klein


      Preface vii
      1 Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms1 (1946) 1
      2 On the Theory of Anxiety and Guilt (1948) 25
      3 On the Criteria for the Termination of a Psycho-Analysis (1950) 43
      4 The Origins of Transference (1952) 48
      5 The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id (1952) 57
      6 Some Theoretical Conclusions Regarding the Emotional Life of the Infant1 (1952) 61
      7 On Observing the Behaviour of Young Infants (1952) 94
      8 The Psycho-Analytic Play Technique: Its History and Significance (1955) 122
      9 On Identification (1955) 141
      10 Envy and Gratitude (1957) 176
      11 On the Development of Mental Functioning (1958) 236
      12 Our Adult World and its Roots in Infancy (1959) 247
      13 A Note on Depression in the Schizophrenic (1960) 264
      14 On Mental Health (1960) 268
      15 Some Reflections on ‘The Oresteia’ (1963) 275
      16 On the Sense of Loneliness (1963) 300
      Short Contributions 314
      The Importance of Words in Early Analysis (1927) 314
      Note on ‘A Dream of Forensic Interest’ (1928) 315
      Theoretical Deductions from an Analysis of Dementia Praecox in Early Infancy (1929) 318
      Some Psychological Considerations: A Comment (1942) 320
      Explanatory Notes 324
      Appendix: Introductory Notes by Ernest Jones to Previous Editions of Melanie Klein's Works 337
      Introduction to Contributions to Psycho-Analysis, 1921-45 (1948) 342


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