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      Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss: Volume II: Separation, Anxiety and Anger. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 95:1-429. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      (1973). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 95:1-429. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      Attachment and Loss: Volume II: Separation, Anxiety and Anger

      John Bowlby

      Contents

        Preface xi
        Acknowledgments xvii
        PART I: SECURITY, ANXIETY, AND DISTRESS
      1 Prototypes of Human Sorrow 3
        Responses of young children to separation from mother 3
        Conditions leading to intense responses 6
        Conditions mitigating the intensity of responses 16
        Presence or absence of mother figure: a key variable 22
      2 The Place of Separation and Loss in Psychopathology 25
        Problem and perspective 25
        Separation anxiety and other forms of anxiety 30
        A challenge for theory 30
      3 Behaviour with and without Mother: Humans 33
        Naturalistic observations 33
        Experimental Studies 39
        Ontogeny of responses to separation 52
      4 Behaviour with and without Mother: Non-human Primates 57
        Naturalistic observations 57
        Early experimental studies 60
        Further studies by Hinde and Spencer-Booth 69
        PART II: AN ETHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO HUMAN FEAR
      5 Basic Postulates in Theories of Anxiety and Fear 77
        Anxiety allied to fear 77
        Models of motivation and their effects on theory 79
        Puzzling phobia or natural fear 83
      6 Forms of Behaviour Indicative of Fear 87
        An empirical approach 87
        Withdrawal behaviour and attachment behaviour 89
        Feeling afraid and its variants: feeling alarmed and feeling anxious 92
      7 Situations that Arouse Fear in Humans 96
        A difficult field of study 96
        Fear-arousing situations: the first year 99
        Fear-arousing situations: the second and later years 105
        Compound situations 118
        Fear behaviour and the development of attachment 119
      8 Situations that Arouse Fear in Animals 124
        Natural clues to potential danger 124
        Fear behaviour of non-human primates 127
        Compound situations 134
        Fear, attack, and exploration 136
      9 Natural Clues to Danger and Safety 138
        Better safe than sorry 138
        Potential danger of being alone 142
        Potential safety of familiar companions and environment 146
        Maintaining a stable relationship with the familiar environment: a form of homeostasis 148
      10 Natural Clues, Cultural Clues, and the Assessment of Danger 151
        Clues of three kinds 151
        Real danger: difficulties of assessment 153
        ‘Imaginary’ dangers 156
        Cultural clues learnt from others 158
        Continuing role of the natural clues 161
        Behaviour in disaster 166
      11 Rationalization, Misattribution, and Projection 169
        Difficulties in identifying situations that arouse fear 169
        Misattribution and the role of projection 172
        The case of Schreber: a re-examination 174
      12 Fear of Separation 178
        Hypotheses regarding its development 178
        Need for two terminologies 182
        PART III: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FEAR: ANXIOUS ATTACHMENT
      13 Some Variables responsible for ndividual Differences 187
        Constitutional variables 187
        Experiences and processes that reduce susceptibility to fear 191
        Experiences and processes that increase susceptibility to fear 196
      14 Susceptibility to Fear and the Availability of Attachment Figures 201
        Forecasting the availability of an attachment figure 201
        Working models of attachment figures and of self 203
        The role of experience in determining working models 207
        A note on use of the terms ‘mature’ and ‘immature’ 209
      15 Anxious Attachment and Some Conditions that Promote it 211
        ‘Overdependency’ or anxious attachment 211
        Anxious attachment of children reared without a permanent mother figure 215
        Anxious attachment after a period of separation or of daily substitute care 220
        Anxious attachment following threats of abandonment or suicide 226
      16 ‘Overdependency’ and the Theory of Spoiling 237
        Some contrasting theories 237
        Studies of ‘overdependency’ and its antecedents 240
      17 Anger, Anxiety, and Attachment 245
        Anger: a response to separation 245
        Anger: functional and dysfunctional 246
        Anger, ambivalence, and anxiety 253
      18 Anxious Attachment and the ‘Phobias’ of Childhood 258
        Phobia, pseudophobia, and anxiety state 258
        ‘School phobia’ or school refusal 261
        Two classical cases of childhood phobia: a reappraisal 283
        Animal phobias in childhood 289
      19 Anxious Attachment and ‘Agoraphobia’ 292
        Symptomatology and theories of ‘agoraphobia’ 292
        Pathogenic patterns of family interaction 299
        ‘Agoraphobia’, bereavement, and depression 309
        A note on response to treatment 310
      20 Omission, Suppression, and Falsification of Family Context 313
      21 Secure Attachment and the Growth of Self-reliance 322
        Personality development and family experience 322
        Studies of adolescents and young adults 328
        Studies of young children 350
        Self-reliance and reliance on others 359
      22 Pathways for the Growth of Personality 363
        The nature of individual variation: alternative models 363
        Developmental pathways and homeorhesis 366
        One person's pathway: some determinants 369
        APPENDICES
      I Separation Anxiety: Review of Literature 375
      II Psychoanalysis and Evolution Theory 399
      III Problems of Terminology 404
        References 409

      Preface

      In the preface to the first volume of this work I describe the circumstances in which it was begun.

      [This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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