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      Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss: Volume I: Attachment. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 79:1-401. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      (1969). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 79:1-401. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

      Attachment and Loss: Volume I: Attachment

      John Bowlby

      Mother and child of the Matto Grosso, Amazon basin

      Contents

      Preface xi
      Acknowledgements xvii
      PART I: THE TASK
      1 Point of View 3
        Some characteristics of the present approach 5
        Theories of motivation 13
        Note on the concept of feedback in Freud's theorising 22
      2 Observations to be Explained 24
      PART II: INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOUR
      3 Instinctive Behaviour: An Alternative Model 37
        Introduction 37
        Some principles of control systems 41
        Control systems and instinctive behaviour 44
        Adaptation: system and environment 50
        Note on literature 56
      4 Man's Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness 58
      5 Behavioural Systems Mediating Instinctive Behaviour 65
        Types of behavioural system 65
        Co-ordination of behavioural systems 74
        Higher processes of integration and control 80
      6 Causation of Instinctive Behaviour 85
        Activation and termination of behavioural systems 85
        Incompatible behavioural systems: results of simultaneous activation 97
        Sensory input and its transformation 102
      7 Appraising and Selecting: Feeling and Emotion 104
        Introduction 104
        Philosophical problems 106
        Processes that are felt 109
        Is feeling or emotion causative of behaviour? 116
        The communicative role of feeling and emotion 120
      8 Function of Instinctive Behaviour 124
        Functions of behavioural systems and other consequences of their activity 124
        Problems of terminology 133
      9 Changes in Behaviour during the Life-cycle 141
      10 10 Ontogeny of Instinctive Behaviour 145
        Changes that occur during the ontogeny of behavioural systems 145
        Restriction of range of effective stimuli 147
        Elaboration of primitive behavioural systems and their super-session by sophisticated systems 152
        Integration of behavioural systems into functional wholes 157
        Sensitive periods of development 161
        Imprinting 166
        Comparison of old and new theories of instinctive behaviour 172
      PART III: ATTACHMENT BEHAVIOUR
      11 The Child's Tie to his Mother: Attachment Behaviour 177
        Alternative theories 177
        Attachment behaviour and its place in nature 180
        Attachment behaviour in sub-human primates 184
        Attachment behaviour in man 198
      12 Nature and Function of Attachment Behaviour 210
        The theory of secondary drive: origin and present status 210
        The question of imprinting 220
        Function of attachment behaviour 223
        A note on terminology: ‘dependence’ 228
        Attachment and other systems of social behaviour 230
      13 A Control Systems Approach to Attachment Behaviour 235
        Introduction 235
        The roles of child and of mother in mother-child interaction 236
        Forms of behaviour mediating attachment and their organisation 244
        Behaviour typical of two-year-olds in different situations 252
        Activation and termination of systems mediating attachment behaviour 257
      PART IV: ONTOGENY OF HUMAN ATTACHMENT
      14 Beginnings of Attachment Behaviour 265
        Phases in the development of attachment 265
        Behavioural equipment of the human neonate 268
        Early responses to people 271
        Nature and nurture 296
      15 Focusing on a Figure 299
        Introduction 299
        Patterns of differentially directed behaviour 300
        Figures towards whom attachment behaviour is directed 303
        Processes leading to selection of figures 313
        Sensitive phases and the fear of strangers 321
        Spitz's position: a critique 327
      16 Patterns of Attachment and Contributing Conditions 331
        Problems to be solved 331
        Criteria for describing patterns of attachment 333
        Some patterns of attachment seen at the first birthday 335
        Conditions of the first year contributing to variation 339
        Persistence and stability of patterns 347
      17 Developments in the Organisation of Attachment Behaviour 350
      APPENDIX
        The Child's Tie to his Mother: Review of the Psychoanalytical Literature 361
      References 379

      This Page Left Intentionally Blank

      Preface

      In 1956 when this work was begun I had no conception of what I was undertaking.

      [This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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